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Question: What is tracheoesophageal fistula?

A tracheoesophageal fistula (TEF) is an abnormal connection between these two tubes. As a result, swallowed liquids or food can be aspirated (inhaled) into your child’s lungs. Feeding into the stomach directly can also lead to reflux and aspiration of stomach acid and food.

What causes a tracheoesophageal fistula?

Causes of acquired TEFs include iatrogenic injury, blunt chest or neck trauma, prolonged mechanical ventilation via endotracheal or tracheostomy tube, and excessive tube cuff pressure in patients ventilated for lung disease.

What are the symptoms of tracheoesophageal fistula?

What are the symptoms of TE fistula or esophageal atresia?

  • Frothy, white bubbles in the mouth.
  • Coughing or choking when feeding.
  • Vomiting.
  • Blue color of the skin, especially when the baby is feeding.
  • Trouble breathing.
  • Very round, full stomach.

How is a tracheoesophageal fistula diagnosed?

How is tracheoesophageal fistula diagnosed?

  1. imaging studies, such as x-rays.
  2. endoscopy or bronchoscopy, which are techniques for looking at the inside of your child’s airways using a thin tube fitted with a small light and camera.
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What is the most common tracheoesophageal fistula?

The most common type is the type C fistula which accounts for 84% of TE fistulas. The type C fistula includes proximal esophageal atresia with distal fistula formation. Polyhydramnios on fetal ultrasound is a common presentation of this type of fistula due to the inability of the fetus to swallow amniotic fluid.

Can you eat with a tracheoesophageal fistula?

Many children need to eat five or six small meals throughout the day after esophageal atresia or tracheoesophageal fistula (EA/TEF) repair. Aim for meals every three or four hours. Do not let mealtimes last more than 30 minutes.

Why does tracheoesophageal fistula cause Polyhydramnios?

If the fistula is so narrow or restrictied in flow that it does not allow for this, the amniotic fluid will build up. This excessive amount of amniotic fluid is called polyhydramnios. No stomach is seen because the baby is not swallowing amniotic fluid and the stomach is empty.

What causes a fistula in a baby?

An anal fistula may be congenital (present at birth). Or it may occur following an anal abscess or infection, trauma to the anal canal, or surgery. An anal fistula may also be due to a disease such as a bowel disorder. An anal fistula is corrected with surgery.

What causes tracheoesophageal fistula baby?

A tracheoesophageal fistula (TEF) is an abnormal connection between these two tubes. As a result, swallowed liquids or food can be aspirated (inhaled) into your child’s lungs. Feeding into the stomach directly can also lead to reflux and aspiration of stomach acid and food.

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What is a fistula baby?

TE fistula is a birth defect, which occurs in 1 in 5,000 births, and occurs as a fetus is forming in its mother’s uterus. When a baby with a TE fistula swallows, the liquid can pass through the abnormal connection between the esophagus and the trachea. When this happens, liquid gets into the baby’s lungs.

What will happen if a fistula is left untreated?

Fistulas can cause a lot of discomfort, and if left untreated, may cause serious complications. Some fistulas can cause a bacteria infection, which may result in sepsis, a dangerous condition that can lead to low blood pressure, organ damage or even death.

Is tracheoesophageal fistula treatable?

Currently, the treatment of TEF is predominantly interventional and not surgical. The main techniques are: (I) esophageal and/or airway stenting, which is effective to seal the fistula and prevent the leakage of liquid or gas.

What are the complications of tracheoesophageal fistula?

Congenital and acquired TEFs are associated with multiple complications, including recurrent pneumonia, acute lung injury, acute respiratory distress syndrome, lung abscess, poor nutrition, bronchiectasis from recurrent aspiration, respiratory failure, and death.

What are the 5 types of tracheoesophageal fistula?

Esophageal atresia is closely related to tracheo-esophageal fistula and can be divided into1:

  • type A: isolated esophageal atresia (8%)
  • type B: proximal fistula with distal atresia (1%)
  • type C: proximal atresia with distal fistula (85%)
  • type D:
  • type E: isolated fistula (H-type) (4%)

What is tracheoesophageal fistula type C?

TYPE C. The upper segment of the esophagus ends in a blind pouch and the lower segment is connected to the trachea via a TEF. This is the most common type of EA/TEF occurring in approximately 85 percent of individuals.

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What are the types of tracheoesophageal fistula?

The most common anomaly consists of a blind esophageal pouch and a distal TEF. Pure esophageal atresia without a TEF is the second most common form. The third most common anomaly is the H-type fistula, which consists of a TEF without esophageal atresia.

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