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Question: Why was the Nez Perce War important?

The conflict, fought between June and October 1877, stemmed from the refusal of several bands of the Nez Perce, dubbed “non-treaty Indians,” to give up their ancestral lands in the Pacific Northwest and move to an Indian reservation in Idaho.

Who are the Nez Perce and why is their history important?

The Nez Perce were famous for being excellent horsemen and for breeding fine horses. They are credited with creating the Appaloosa horse breed. There were around 12,000 Nez Perce in 1805, but the population declined to less than 2,000 by the early 1900s.

Who won the Nez Perce war?

On October 5, 1877, Nez Perce leader Chief Joseph formally surrendered his forces to General Nelson A. Miles and General Oliver Otis Howard at Bear Paw Mountain, Montana Territory. This effectively ended the Nez Perce War of 1877.

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Why the story of Chief Joseph and the Nez Perce is important?

Chief Joseph (1840-1904) was a leader of the Wallowa band of the Nez Perce Tribe, who became famous in 1877 for leading his people on an epic flight across the Rocky Mountains.

When was the Nez Perce war?

Spanish explorers were the first to arrive, in the early 18th century. The horses they left behind dramatically changed the Nez Perce way of life. The Nez Perce became excellent riders and breeders of horses, such as the Appaloosa. Horses enabled tribal members to hunt buffalo and trade far beyond their original lands.

How did the Nez Perce tribe life change?

After they acquired horses early in the 18th century, life for the Nez Percé began to change dramatically, at least among some groups. As the 18th century progressed, the Nez Percé’s increased mobility fostered their enrichment and expansionism, and they began to dominate negotiations with other tribes in the region.

What happened at the Battle of Big Hole?

The Battle of the Big Hole began prematurely after Gibson’s men killed Natalekin when he discovered the army. Immediately after, Gibson’s troops started to cross the river and fire shots at the Nez Perce village, killing mostly women, children, and elders.

What happened at the Big Hole?

On August 9, 1877 gun shots shattered a chilly dawn on a sleeping camp of Nez Perce. By the time the smoke cleared on August 10, almost 90 Nez Perce were dead along with 31 soldiers and volunteers. Big Hole National Battlefield was created to honor all who were there.

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Which Native American leader spoke out for and tried to protect the Nez Perce?

While many Native American war leaders and chiefs were known for their combative resistance towards the U.S.’s westward expansion, Chief Joseph, Wallowa leader of the Nez Perce, was known for his concerted efforts to negotiate and live peacefully with his new neighbors.

How did Chief Joseph help create change in America?

Joseph the Elder’s relationship with the whites had been unprecedented. He’d been one of the early Nez Perce leaders to convert to Christianity, and his influence had gone a long way toward establishing peace with his white neighbors. In 1855, he forged a new treaty that created a new reservation for the Nez Perce.

Why is Chief Joseph a hero?

Chief Joseph lived among the Nez Perce tribe. This Nez Perce chief still is a hero today because of his resiliency in fighting for what he knew was right. He was able to capture the hearts of his followers and of many Americans. Because of this there have been many schools, dams, and even hospitals named in his honor.

What did General Howard tell Chief Joseph?

Howard, though, took the credit: “through my own interpreter [I] succeeded in persuading Chief Joseph to abandon further hostile effort and make a prompt surrender,” he wrote in his memoirs. Tell General Howard I know his heart. What he told me before, I have it in my heart. I have it in my heart.

Who won the battle of big hole?

The Battle of Big Hole did not leave the small band of Nez Perce defeated, but they lost about 90 warriors, women and children in the battle. Explorers Meriwether Lewis and William Clark were the tribe’s first contact with Europeans and their dealings with white people had been mostly friendly.

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What did Chief Joseph surrender to?

Chief Joseph’s surrender to General Nelson A. Miles, October 5, 1877. In 1873, Chief Joseph negotiated with the federal government to ensure that his people could stay on their land in the Wallowa Valley as stipulated in 1855 and 1863 land treaties with the U.S. government.

What was the last major event of the Indian wars?

The last major event of the Indian Wars was the Massacre at Wounded Knee, an area in South Dakota in 1890.

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